Terminology List

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  • Actor
    Someone or something, outside the system that interacts with the system (Source: Dulak & Guiney, 2003; DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Ad hoc
    Ad hoc refers to something made or happening only for a particular purpose or need, not planned before it happens (Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ad-hoc)

  • Adaptation
    "The adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Comment: This definition addresses the concerns of climate change and is sourced from the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The broader concept of adaptation also applies to non-climatic factors such as soil erosion or surface subsidence. Adaptation can occur in autonomous fashion, for example through market changes, or as a result of intentional adaptation policies and plans. Many disaster risk reduction measures can directly contribute to better adaptation." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Adaptive capacity
    "ability of systems, institutions, humans, and other organisms to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond to consequences" ISO 14080:2018(en), 3.1.3.5. "The adaptive capacity of a system is usually assessed by observing how it responds to disruptions or challenges. Adaptive capacity has limits or boundary conditions, and disruptions provide information about where those boundaries lie and how the system behaves when events push it near or over those boundaries" (Source: Woods and Cook, 2006, p. 69)

  • After-action report
    "Document which records, describes and analyses the exercise, drawing on debriefings and reports from observers and derives lessons from it" (Source: ISO22300)

  • All-hazards
    "Naturally occurring events, human induced events (both intentional and unintentional) and technology caused events with potential impact on an organization, community or society and environment on which it depends" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Anticipate (term)
    "Anticipate threats, opportunities and cascade effects. It is not only about identifying single events, but how parts may interact and affect each other" (Adapted from source: Hollnagel, 2009).

  • Authority, autonomy and accountability
    These notions are especially important to consider in the context of adaptations. It is indeed necessary to understand: (1) who is in command (authority); (2) how much latitude those under this command have to make decisions and take actions (autonomy); and (3) who might take responsibility for implementing certain courses of action (accountability). Resilient systems require that these aspects are organised in a coherent way, especially to avoid blame games when adaptations that appeared necessary during a situation turn out to be unsuccessful.

  • Brittleness
    Brittleness describes how rapidly a system's performance declines when it nears and reaches its boundary conditions (Source: Woods, 2015).

  • Buffer capacity
    Size or kinds of disruptions the system can absorb or adapt to without a fundamental breakdown in performance. (adapted from Woods, 2006)

  • Business continuity
    "Capability of an organization to continue delivery of product or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive accident" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Capability card
    The Capability Cards (CC) are the building blocks of the guidelines. CCs propose specific interventions in order to develop and enhance specific resilience management capabilities. They are built based on knowledge captured through literature review and interviews, and revised by incorporating operational perspectives. The guidelines build on the Capability Cards by organising and relating them, because the resilience management capabilities they refer to are not independent.

  • Capacity
    "The combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources available within a community, society or organization that can be used to achieve agreed goals. Comment: Capacity may include infrastructure and physical means, institutions, societal coping abilities, as well as human knowledge, skills and collective attributes such as social relationships, leadership and management. Capacity also may be described as capability. Capacity assessment is a term for the process by which the capacity of a group is reviewed against desired goals, and the capacity gaps are identified for further action." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Capacity development
    "The process by which people, organizations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capacities over time to achieve social and economic goals, including through improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions. Comment: Capacity development is a concept that extends the term of capacity building to encompass all aspects of creating and sustaining capacity growth over time. It involves learning and various types of training, but also continuous efforts to develop institutions, political awareness, financial resources, technology systems, and the wider social and cultural enabling environment." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Civil protection
    "Measures taken and system implemented to preserve lives and health of citizen, their properties and their environment from undesired events. Note undesired events include accidents, emergencies and disasters" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Collaboration (term)
    "To work with another person or group in order to achieve or do something" (Source: Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)

  • Command and control (term)
    "Activities of target oriented decision-making, situation assessment, planning, implementing decision and controlling effect of implementation on the incident Note These activities are continuously repeated" (Source: ISO22300, ISO 22320)

  • Common Ground
    Common Ground is a basis agreed by different parties for reaching a mutual understanding. In this context, a common ground between two or more organizations is achieved when the representatives of one organization have at least a high-level knowledge of the activities, goals, values and working environments of the other organization. Reaching common ground means being able to observe from two different perspectives an activity or process on which the two organization have shared responsibilities. A benefit of common ground is the formulation of correct expectations on how the other organization will operate in a given circumstance so to facilitate a more effective collaboration.

  • Community resilience
    Community resilience (CR) describes the community's ability to overcome unexpected changes and crises, mitigating the community’s response. It is a multi-dimensional concept, encompasses both physical and perceptional components (Leykin et al., 2013; Cohen et al., 2016). Comments: Community resilience is perceived as a core element of disaster risk reduction (Source: UNISDR 2015), and as a process rather than outcome. (Source: Norris et al. 2008). Community resilience is not the resiliency of the community members themselves, but their ability to take deliberate, purposeful, and collective action to alleviate the detrimental effects of adverse events on the community (Source: Pfefferbaum et al. 2013). Optimize resource utilization will enhance CR. Communication is essential for capacity building. Ongoing assessment of CR may improve emergency preparedness and response (Leykin et al., 2013; Cohen et al., 2016).

  • Competence
    "Demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skill to achieve intended results" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Concept
    "A set or conjunction of characteristic features/entities related to a common scope and rationale that is (at least partly) entangled with or concerns the scope of DARWIN, and with a presumed coherence related to an overall and wide understanding of "resilience". What are the characteristic features put together, and how do they incorporate the idea of "resilience"?" (Source: DARWIN D1.1, 2015)

  • Context
    The environment in which a system will operate or operates (Source: Sommerville, 2001, DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Contingency
    "Possible future event, condition or eventuality" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Coordination
    "Way in which different organization or parts of same organization work or act together in order to achieve a common objective Note 1 Coordination integrated the individual response activities of involved parties (including e.g. public, or private organization and government) to achieve synergy to the extent that the incident response has a unique objective and coordinates activities through transparent information sharing regarding their respective incident response activities Note 2 All organization are involved in the process to agree on a common incident response objective and accept to implement the strategies by this consensus decision-making process" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Coping capacity
    "The ability of people, organizations and systems, using available skills and resources, to face and manage adverse conditions, emergencies or disasters. Comment: The capacity to cope requires continuing awareness, resources and good management, both in normal times as well as during crises or adverse conditions. Coping capacities contribute to the reduction of disaster risks" (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Coupling
    Coupling (loose/tight) refers to the time-dependency of a process, the flexibility of action sequences, the number of ways to achieve a goal, and the availability of slack in operational resources (from Perrow, 1984 - Perrow, Charles. Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies. New York: Basic Books, 1984.)

  • Crisis
    "Situation with high level of uncertainty that disrupts the core activities and/or credibility of an organization and required urgent action" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Critical Infrastructure
    "The physical and information technology facilities, networks, services and assets that, if disrupted or destroyed, would have a serious impact on the health, safety, security or economic well-being of citizens or the effective functioning of governments in EU countries" (EPCIP, 2006)

  • Critical facilities
    "The primary physical structures, technical facilities and systems which are socially, economically or operationally essential to the functioning of a society or community, both in routine circumstances and in the extreme circumstances of an emergency. Comment: Critical facilities are elements of the infrastructure that support essential services in a society. They include such things as transport systems, air and sea ports, electricity, water and communications systems, hospitals and health clinics, and centers for fire, police and public administration services." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Cross Fertilization
    Cross Fertilization is the mixing of the ideas, customs, etc. of different places or groups of people, to produce a better result (Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cross-fertilization). In this context, it should be mainly intended as the creative process by which organizations from different sectors and with different experiences exchange views and get inspiration for the innovative use of an existing technology (i.e. transfer of technology) or for a different application of an existing procedure or practice.

  • DARWIN Resilience Management Guidelines
    Help or advice for DARWIN Resilience Management Guideline users to recognize or improve resilient performance (from the definition of "guidance", Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary) (Source: DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Deviation
    "(1) An alternative method of compliance with the intent of specific requirements (MIL-STD-1574A). A departure from established or usual conduct or ideology. (2) The amount by which a score or other measure differs from the mean, or other descriptive statistic. " (Source: Vincoli, 2006)

  • Disaster
    "Situation where widespread human, material, economy or environmental losses have occurred which exceeded the ability of the affected organization, community or society to respond and recover using its own resources" (Source: ISO22300) "A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Comment: Disasters are often described as a result of the combination of: the exposure to a hazard; the conditions of vulnerability that are present; and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce or cope with the potential negative consequences. Disaster impacts may include loss of life, injury, disease and other negative effects on human physical, mental and social well-being, together with damage to property, destruction of assets, loss of services, social and economic disruption and environmental degradation." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Dissemination
    Dissemination is the act of spreading information, notions and ideas in relation to given content, in a format that can be easily understood by the people expected to use the information. In this context, the dissemination should be mainly intended as the activity by which relevant members of an organization become aware of pieces of information that are vital to ensure an adequate level of resilience of the organization itself.

  • Early Warning System
    "The set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. Comment: This definition encompasses the range of factors necessary to achieve effective responses to warnings. A people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: knowledge of the risks; monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to end warning system" is also used to emphasize that warning systems need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Effectiveness
    "Extend to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO) principle
    People (and organizations) have to make a trade-off between the resources they spend on preparing to do something and the resources they spend on doing it. The trade-off may favor thoroughness over efficiency if safety and quality are the dominant concerns, and efficiency over thoroughness if throughput and output are the dominant concerns (Source: Hollnagel, 2009).

  • Emergence
    "How a system's properties and behavior arise from the relationships and interactions across parts, and not from the individual parts in isolation or properties of components. " (Herrera, 2012; Reason) "In a growing number of cases it is difficult or impossible to describe what happens as result of known processes or developments. The outcomes are emergent rather than resultant. Emergent results are not additive not decomposable into components and consequently not predictable from knowledge on those components" (Source: Hollnagel, 2012)

  • Evaluation (term)
    Evaluation refers to a tool to determine the worth and value of [...], with the purpose of providing information to decision-makers and improve […] performance in the spirit of looking backwards to improve forward directions” (Source: Vedung, E. (1997). Public policy and program evaluation. London, Transaction Publishers). "

  • Event
    "Occurrence or change of a particular set of circumstances Note 1 An event can be more than one or more occurrences, and can have several causes Note 2 An event can consist of something not happening Note 3 An event can be deferred to as an incident or accident Note 4 An event without consequences can also be deferred to as a near miss, incident, near hit or close call" (Source: ISO Guide 73 ISO 22300) DARWIN Note1 Evaluation scenarios cover different events types in terms of frequency of occurrence and predictability. The distinction between Regular, Irregular and Unexampled events by (Westrum, 2006 and DARWIN, 2016)

  • Exercise
    "Process to train for, assess, practice and improve performance in an organization Note 1 Exercises can be used for validating policies, plans, procedures, training, equipment, and inter-organizational agreements; clarifying and training personnel in roles, responsibilities; improving individual performance and identifying opportunities for improvement; and a controlled opportunity to practice improvisation Note 2 A test is a unique and particular type of exercise, which incorporated and expectation of a pass or fail element within the goal or objectives of the exercise being planned". (Source: ISO22300)

  • Form (of the guideline)
    The design or appearance, with regard to ease of use (Source: DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Function
    A set of actions that a system performs or is used for, which are valuable for the achievement of a set of goals (Source: Woltjer, 2009, DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Functional interdependence
    Interrelationships (mutual dependence) between functions of a system.

  • Gaps (in plans and procedures)
    Gaps are typically described in two ways in the context of plans and procedures:
    1. in reference to the difference between those plans and procedures and how work is actually performed (see for example Antonsen et al, 2008). This corresponds to the idea of work-as-done vs. work-as-imagined.
    2. in reference to the "holes" in the work processes, i.e. the actions that are not described in plans and procedures (see for instance Cook et al., 2000, in the context of patient safety).
    In both cases, gaps exist between it is fundamentally impossible to describe work processes exhaustively. There are always limitations in the knowledge an organisation can have about work situations and performance, and situations that arise with unusual characteristics. People fill those gaps routinely in their activities, potentially deviating from plans and procedures as a result.

  • Governance
    Governance describes structures and processes for collective decision-making involving governmental and non-governmental actors (Source: Nye and Donahue (2000)).

  • Graceful extensibility
    "A positive capability to stretch near and beyond boundaries when surprise occurs. Systems and organizations need graceful extensibility as a separate kind of capacity to our everyday performances when the system is far from the boundary conditions" (Woods, 2015).

  • Hazard
    "Source: of potential harm Note Hazard can be a risk source" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Improvisation
    "Act of inventing, composing or performing with little or no preparation a reaction to the unexpected" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Issues
    "Represent problems, difficulties or factors that need to be managed (by a suggested solution) in order to fulfill one or several needs. What are the barriers to fulfill the need?" (Source: DARWIN D1.1, 2015)

  • Learn and evolve (term)
    "Learn and evolve from experience of actual events, successes and failures what to learn and how the learning is reflected in the organization". (Adapted from source: Hollnagel, 2009).

  • Margin
    "How closely or how precarious the system is currently operating relative to one or another kind of performance boundary" (from Woods, 2006 - Woods, D. D. "Essential Characteristics of Resilience." In Resilience Engineering: Concepts And Precepts, edited by E. Hollnagel, D. D. Woods, and N. Leveson, 19–30. Adelshot, UK: Ashgate, 2006.)

  • Mitigation
    Measures taken to prevent, limit and reduce impact of the negative consequences of incidents, emergencies and disasters (Source: ISO22300)

  • Model
    "An inventory of interrelated items that claim to represent/operationalize a theory/concept, or parts thereof, (possibly) with a procedure or algorithm for their application. What is the inventory, and how can it be utilized? " (Source: DARWIN D1.1, 2015)

  • Monitor (term)
    "Monitor in a flexible way means that the system'€™s own performance and external conditions focus on what it is essential to the operation" (Adapted from source: Hollnagel, 2009).

  • Needs
    A condition or capability needed by a user to solve a problem or achieve an objective (Source: Hallberg, Jungert, & Pilemalm, 2014)

  • Operational information
    "Information considered in a specific context and analyzed to provide and understanding of the situation and its possible evolution" (Source: ISO22300, ISO 22320)

  • Operational variability
    Variability and uncertainty are inherent in complex work such as disaster response; the conditions and challenges that manifest themselves are many and various. These can take the form of changes experienced in the daily life of operational units everywhere; or surprises that emerge from the interface of system elements that interact in unusual ways (e.g., hidden interactions); or challenges such as volcanic ash that defy prediction capabilities.

  • Organization
    "Person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives Note The concept of organization includes, but not limited to, sole trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Performance
    "Measurable result Note 1 Performance can relate to either quantitative or qualitative findings Note 2 Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes, products (including services), systems or organizations." (Source: ISO22300)

  • Practice
    "Represent a solution that has been incorporated/implemented in a real environment. What has been incorporated in order to overcome one or several issues/barriers?"

  • Practitioner
    person involved in the practice or role of operation or management of critical infrastructure (adapted to DARWIN and critical infrastructure from ISO/IEC 19770 5, 3.31)

  • Preparedness
    "The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions. Comment: Preparedness action is carried out within the context of disaster risk management and aims to build the capacities needed to efficiently manage all types of emergencies and achieve orderly transitions from response through to sustained recovery. Preparedness is based on a sound analysis of disaster risks and good linkages with early warning systems, and includes such activities as contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, the development of arrangements for coordination, evacuation and public information, and associated training and field exercises. These must be supported by formal institutional, legal and budgetary capacities. The related term "readiness" describes the ability to quickly and appropriately respond when required. (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Prioritized activities
    "Activities to which priority must be given following an incident in order to mitigate impacts Note Terms in common used to described activities within this group include: critical, essential, vital, urgent and key" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Process
    A sequence of activities designed to produce a specified output (Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE, 2010, DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Protection
    "Measures that safeguard and enable an organization to reduce the impact of a potential disruption" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Public awareness
    "The extent of common knowledge about disaster risks, the factors that lead to disasters and the actions that can be taken individually and collectively to reduce exposure and vulnerability to hazards. Comment: Public awareness is a key factor in effective disaster risk reduction. Its development is pursued, for example, through the development and dissemination of information through media and educational channels, the establishment of information centers, networks, and community or participation actions, and advocacy by senior public officials and community leaders. (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Quality (of the guideline)
    The internal consistency or soundness, and fitness for purpose (Source: DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Recovery
    "Restoration and improvement, where appropriate, of operations, facilities, livelihoods or living condition of affected organization, including efforts to reduce risk factors" (Source: ISO22300) "The restoration, and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors. Comment: The recovery task of rehabilitation and reconstruction begins soon after the emergency phase has ended, and should be based on pre-existing strategies and policies that facilitate clear institutional responsibilities for recovery action and enable public participation. Recovery programs, coupled with the heightened public awareness and engagement after a disaster, afford a valuable opportunity to develop and implement disaster risk reduction measures and to apply the "build back better" principle." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Requirement
    An expression that specifies what a system should accomplish (Lauesen, 2002)

  • Resilience
    DARWIN adapts the following working definition: "The ability to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of disturbances and changes in a timely and efficient manner, including through adaptation and restoration of basic structures and functions" (Source: DARWIN D1.1, 2015).

    Some widely used related definitions that this working definition is based on:
    "Adaptive capacity of an organization in a complex and changing environment. Note Resilience is the ability of an organization to manage disruptive related risk" (Source: ISO 22300).
    "The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions. Comment: Resilience means the ability to "resile from" or "spring back from" a shock. The resilience of a community in respect to potential hazard events is determined by the degree to which the community has the necessary resources and is capable of organizing itself both prior to and during times of need." (Source: UNISDR, 2009).
    "Intrinsic ability of a system or organization to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes, disturbances, and opportunities so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions" (Source: Hollnagel, 2014)

  • Resilience capabilities
    DARWIN builds on proven resilience capabilities: Anticipate threats, opportunities and cascade effects. It is not only about identifying single events, but how parts may interact and affect each other. Monitor in a flexible way means that the system’s own performance and external conditions focus on what it is essential to the operation Respond and adapt to expected and unexpected crisis in a robust and flexible manner. This capability includes readiness to respond. The system is designed to provide a limited range of responses, there is still a necessity to adjust responses in a flexible way. Learn and evolve from experience of actual events, successes and failures what to learn and how the learning is reflected in the organization. Note This capabilities sometimes are called abilities or cornerstones (Source: Adapted from Hollnagel, 2009)

  • Resilience engineering
    The scientific discipline that focuses on developing the principles and practices that are necessary for a system to function in a resilient manner (Source: Hollnagel, 2012)

  • Respond and adapt (term)
    "Respond and adapt to expected and unexpected crisis in a robust and flexible manner. The system is designed to provide a limited range of responses, there is still a necessity to adjust responses in a flexible way." (Adapted from source: Hollnagel, 2009).

  • Response
    "The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected. Comment: Disaster response is predominantly focused on immediate and short-term needs and is sometimes called "disaster relief". The division between this response stage and the subsequent recovery stage is not clear-cut. Some response actions, such as the supply of temporary housing and water supplies, may extend well into the recovery stage." (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Risk
    "Effect of uncertainty on object Note 1 An effect is a deviation from expected: positive and/or negative Note 2 Objects can have different aspects (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product and process) Note 3 Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events, and consequences, or a combination of these Note 4 Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and associated likelihood of occurrence Note 5 Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or knowledge of an event, its consequence, or likelihood" (Source: ISO Guide 73 ISO 22300)

  • Risk management
    "Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization (2.2.9) with regards to risk" (Source: ISO Guide 73, ISO 22300)

  • Scenario
    "Pre-planned storyline that drives and exercise, the stimuli to achieve exercise objectives" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Sensitive information
    "Information that must be protective from public disclosure only because it would have an adverse effect on an organization, national security of public safety" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Serious gaming
    Tactical decision games, role-playing simulations, etc., where different environments can be used, depending on the training/evaluation needs. Serious gaming systems are often broadly classified in Live, Virtual and Constructive modes. Live means involving real people operatingreal systems, Virtual means real people operating simulated systems, Constructive means involving simulated people operating simulated systems. DARWIN will use Virtual and Constructive modes as means to test and validate resilience guidelines developed in the project. (Source: Wikipedia and DARWIN DoA 2015)

  • Situation understanding
    Situation understanding refers to understanding of the situation during an unfolding event. During a crisis or disastrous event the responsible actors need to have a good understanding of the situation (Source: Reissman, D.B. and Howard, J. (2008). Responder safety and health: Preparing for future disasters. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. 75:2). This understanding includes knowing what resources are available (and where they are), what resources could be available, (Source: O'Sullivan, T.L. and Corneil, W. and Kuziemsky, C.E. and Toal-Sullivan, D. (2014). Use of the structured interview matrix to enhance community resilience through collaboration and inclusive engagement. Systems Research and Behavioral Science), understanding and making sense of the ongoing event (Source: Meshkati, N. and Khashe, Y. (2015). Operators' Improvisation in Complex Technological Systems: Successfully Tackling Ambiguity, Enhancing Resiliency and the Last Resort to Averting Disaster. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. 23:2) and knowing what other actors are doing or are supposed to be doing.

  • Solutions
    "Represent some kind of a way forward to overcome one or several barriers, an intervention (which could be a method, tools, framework etc.). What could be incorporated (method, tools, framework etc.) in order to overcome one or several issues/barriers?" (Source: DARWIN D1.1, 2015) "The description of a system or a component that realizes the design, which means that it should meet both the requirements and the identified needs" (Source: Hallberg, Jungert, & Pilemalm, 2014; DARWIN D1.3, 2016)

  • Space (margin) for manoeuvre
    The space (or margin) for manoeuvre is the cushion of potential actions and additional resources that allow the system to continue functioning and adapting despite unexpected demands (Lay and Branlat, 2015). What creates such space varies, examples include: (1) procedures that leave room for interpretation, i.e. not extremely prescriptive; (2) available extra resources such as tactical reserves. Resilient systems are careful about creating and maintaining margins, because they correspond to a capacity to handle disruptions when they occur... without jeopardising the capacity to do so in the future (Woods and Branlat, 2010; 2011). Synonyms: margin of maneuver. Related notions: Buffer, slack, wiggle room.

  • Stakeholder
    "Person or group of people that holds a view that can affect the organization" (Source: ISO22300) "An individual or a group of individuals who are affected by, or able to affect a system. This includes developers, users, and actors." (Source: Sommerville, 2001, DARWIN D1.3, 2016).

  • Statement
    An expression that contains information relevant to the development of the system, which may consist of problem descriptions and ideas for future solutions (Source:Blanchard, 2008, DARWIN D1.3, 2016 )

  • Sustained adaptability
    Relates to Resilience Engineering. This term offers new ways to manage interdependencies across scales. It refers to the ability to manage adaptive capacities of systems (organizations) that are part of a layered network (Source:Woods, 2015, Herrera, 2016)

  • System
    A collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or a set of functions (Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE, 2010).

  • Target
    The guideline scope (Source: DARWIN D1.3, 2016 )

  • Technology Readiness Level (TRL)
    Technology Readiness Level (TRL) proposed in H2020 used for technologies is adapted to DARWIN resilience concepts to assess maturity as follows: TRL1. Lowest maturity of concepts and methods. Examples include scientific articles and conference papers TRL2. Concepts formulated with some precision including some case applications. Examples include papers include case studies application. TRL3. Analytical studies, regulation and policy aspects analysed. Examples include concepts that representative for DARWIN end users view included. TRL4. Resilience concept and/or methods have been validated simulations or workshops in one or more security sectors (low fidelity). TRL5. Resilience concepts are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so that the systems can be tested in a simulated environment. TRL6. Representative resilience concepts are tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a concept demonstration. TRL7. Resilience concepts and guidelines near or at planned operational system. Demonstration of an actual system prototype in an emergency preparedness exercise operational environment. TRL8. Resilience concepts and associated guidelines are qualified by regulations DARWIN perimeter is between TRL1 (survey at the start) and TRL6 (pilots at the end).

  • Test
    "Exercise whose aim is to obtain an expected, measurable pass/fail outcome Note A test is a unique and particular type of exercise, which incorporates and expectation of a pass or fail element within the aim or objectives of the exercise being planned" (Source: ISO22300)

  • Theory
    "A claimed/hypothetical correlation, order or causal relationship between a set of phenomena, issues or factors that associated with a (resilience) concept. What are the typical relationships and regularities that are worthwhile to pay attention to? " (Source: DARWIN D1.1, 2015)

  • Training (term)
    "Activities designed to facilitate the learning and development of knowledge, skill, and abilities, and to improve the performance of specific tasks or roles" (Source: ISO22300)

  • User
    "An individual or a group of individuals that intentionally operate or interact with the system" (Source: IEEE, 1998)

  • Validation
    "The activity to confirm that the intended usage has been fulfilled by the requirements, the design, or the system" (Source: ISO/IEC, 2007)

  • Verification
    "The activity to confirm that the specified requirements have been fulfilled by an objective review of the design or system" (Source: ISO/IEC, 2007)

  • Vulnerability
    "The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. Comment: There are many aspects of vulnerability, arising from various physical, social, economic, and environmental factors. Examples may include poor design and construction of buildings, inadequate protection of assets, lack of public information and awareness, limited official recognition of risks and preparedness measures, and disregard for wise environmental management. Vulnerability varies significantly within a community and over time. This definition identifies vulnerability as a characteristic of the element of interest (community, system or asset) which is independent of its exposure. However, in common use the word is often used more broadly to include the element’s exposure. (Source: UNISDR, 2009)

  • Work-as-done
    Work as done refers to he assumptions or expectations of what other people do [as part of their work] is called Work-as-Imagined (WAI), while that which people actually do [as part of their work] is called Work-as-Done (WAD) (Hollnagel, 2018, p. 17).

  • Work-as-imagined
    Work as imagined refers to the assumptions or expectations of what other people do [as part of their work] is called Work-as-Imagined (WAI), while that which people actually do [as part of their work] is called Work-as-Done (WAD). The term 'imagined' is not used in an uncomplimentary or negative sense but simply recognises that our descriptions of work will never completely correspond to work as it takes place in practice - as it is actually done (Source: Hollnagel, 2018, p. 17-18) and how work is being thought of either before it takes place when it is being planned or after it has taken place when the consequences are being evaluated (Source: Wears and Hollnagel, 2015).

  • Workshop
    A workshop is a period of discussion or practical work on a particular subject in which a group of people share their knowledge or experience. (Source: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/workshop).

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